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Prevention and Treatment of Osteoarthritis

Written by Lauren Hayden. Posted in Athletic Performance, Mineral Support, Nutritional Support

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Phytonutrient and Mineral Therapies for the Prevention and Treatment of Osteoarthritis

Osteoarthritis (OA) is a progressive degenerative disease of the diarthrodial joints especially those that are weight bearing (Danning, 2013), including the knees, hips, shoulders and spine, but can occur at any joint.  Figure 1 contains the diarthrodial joints.  OA is characterized by the degeneration of articular cartilage and formation of subchondral bone and new bone at the joint margins (Danning, 2013). Increasing age correlates with the progressive nature of the disease (but does not cause the disease) finding the highest incidence in populations over 70 years.  Postmenopausal woman are greatly affected in the knee and hand joints. 

The etiology of osteoarthritis results from mechanical and/or biochemical factors.   Mechanical causes include misalignment of the joint, wear and tear of joints due to obesity, previous joint trauma/injury including surgeries and congenital disorders.  Biochemical causes include dehydration, mineral and nutritional deficiencies, hormonal imbalances and genetic predisposition (Danning, 2013).  We will briefly describe the pathophysiology of OA and present complementary and alternative medical (CAM) nutritional therapies for the prevention and treatment of osteoarthritis induced by biochemical causes. 

Biochemical pathophysiologic factors leading to degeneration of articular cartilage result from alterations in numerous biological systems including pH, bone remodeling and protein activities that influence the health of synovial fluids and articular cartilage.    The synovial fluids bathe the joint capsule reducing friction between cartilages and protecting joint tissues.  Movement is essential for healthy joint function as fluid is forced from the cartilages when a join is compressed from pressure and movement (Marieb, 2013).  The presence of calcium phosphate crystals in joint fluid has been shown by some studies to suggest hydroxyapatite formation (Yavorskyy & Santana & McCarthy 2008).  Chronic synovial inflammation induced by calcium crystal deposits could result in chronic polyarthritis (Yavorskyy et al. 2008). Calcification of hydroxyapatite and calcium crystals accentuates the degeneration process by cutting off nutrient supply of glucose and oxygen and interfering with the removal of metabolic waste (Paesold & Nerlich & Boos, 2007). 

The pH of synovial fluids is essential for healthy joint function.  Hyaluronic acid which lubricates surfaces between synovium and cartilage is more stable in conditions of a pH of 7.2-7.4 (Yavorskyy et al. 2008).  Measurements in spinal vertebrae demonstrate low oxygen concentration and elevation in lactic acid which lowers the pH inside the disc.  Low oxygen concentrations and acidic pH affect proteoglycan synthesis rates of vertebral disc cells which may lead to reduction of proteoglycan content and disc degeneration (Paesold, et al. 2007).  CAM nutritional strategies are to upregulate the microenvironment of the joint capsule by prevention and treatment of bone loss, hydroxyapatite formation and to optimize pH of body fluids

Water Hydration of the articular cartilage is essential for joint lubrication and cushioning of weight bearing joints to protect from wear and tear.  Articular cartilage is composed of proteoglycan, collagen fibril and water, the most abundant component.  Water allows the swelling of the collagen–PG matrix providing stability and cushioning.  Hydration is essential for cartilage to maintain normal function, structural integrity and prevent rupture. Dehydrated cartilage is more easily ruptured than hydrated cartilage (Wang & Yang & Niu et al. 2013).  Sixty percent of bodyweight in water is recommended, with an additional 24 oz per hour of exercise.

Glucosamine Sulfate Glucosamine Sulfate (GS), composed of glucose and an amine, promotes targeted support for joints and connective tissue.  Production of GS abates with age resulting in degeneration of cartilage (Murray, 2013). GS is a component of glycoproteins, proteoglycans and glycosaminoglycan’s (Dalirfarouei & Karimi & Jamialahmadi, 2016) and promotes the incorporation of sulfur into cartilage (Murray, 2013). GS also has antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties (Dalirfarouei et al. 2016).  GS and a mud bath treatment were shown to improve pain, function and quality of life in patients with osteoarthritis (Peluso & Caso & Costa et al. 2016).

Vitamin K  Fat soluble vitamin K is a cofactor for calcium binding proteins and an inhibitor of bone demineralization and calcium crystal growth (Shea & Kritchevsky & Hsu et al. 2015).   Cartilage and meniscal calcification are implicated in the pathogenesis of OA and Vitamin K cofactor for matrix gla proteins inhibits ectopic mineralization by binding calcium crystals and inhibiting calcium crystal growth (Shea et al. 2015).   Vitamin K2 helps prevent bone resorption through stimulation of the gene expression of osteoblasts and the upregulation of osteocalcin activity (Marshall, 2016). 

Aquamin Red Algae (lithothamnion sp) Mineralized Red Algae is rich in calcium, magnesium and 72 other trace minerals (Marshall, 2016).  It reduces the symptoms of osteoarthritis and aids in the mineralization and maturation of osteoblasts (Marshall, 2016).  Red Algae also regulate the pro-inflammatory activity of NFkB (Marshall, 2016).

Vitamin D Insufficient vitamin D levels are implicated in an increased risk of OA.  Bassiouni & Aly & Zaky et al. (2016) found the mean values of Vitamin D were statistically lower in knee OA patients.  Significant deterioration of the medial menisci was also observed in vitamin D deficient OA patients (Bassiouni et al 2016).  Low D levels predict loss of cartilage as shown by reduced joint space and osteophyte growth (Murray, 2013). Live source vitamin D3 from sheep’s lanolin is an ideal source from PRLabs.  Recommended dose is at least 2,000 IU daily.  Individuals over the age of 40 and those with gallbladder malfunction can take 12,000 IU with food grade organic limonene oil (Marshall, 2015)

Calcium Adequate levels of calcium are essential for healthy bones, electrolyte balance and the prevention of bone loss. Low calcium intake will increase bone resorption, decrease bone mineralization (Carmeliet et al. 2015) and can lead to formation of  hydroxyapatite crystals which are often found in synovial fluids of OA  patients.( Yavorskyy et al. 2008).

 Natural occurring calcium from greens and marine coral are the ideal options.  Oat Grass, Avena sativa contains a rich array of essential minerals including calcium, potassium, phosphorus, magnesium, chromium, iron and selenium (Marshall, 2015).  Studies show Oat Grass stimulates cell growth including osteoblasts (Marshall, 2015).  Sango marine coral from Okinawa is 90 % ionized, highly absorbed and an ideal 2:1 ratio of calcium and magnesium. (Marshall, 2015).

 

References

Bassiouni, H., Aly, H., Zaky, K., Abaza, N., & Bardin, T. (2016). Probing tThe relation between Vitamin D deficiency and progression of medial femoro -tibial osteoarthitis of the knee. Current Rheumatology Reviews. Abstract retrieved from PMID:

Carmeliet, G., Dermauw, V., & Bouillon, R. (2015). Vitamin D signaling in calcium and bone homeostasis: A delicate balance [Abstract]. Best Practice and Research: Clinical Endocrinology Metabolism, 621-31. doi:10.1016/j.beem.2015.06.001

Dalirfardouei, R., Karimi, G., & Jamialahmadi, K. (2016). Molecular mechanisms and biomedical applications of glucosamine as a potential multifunctional therapeutic agent. [Abstract]. Life Sciences, 179-85. doi:10.1016/j.lfs.2016.03.028.

Danning, C. (2013). Alterations in musculoskeletal function: rheumatic disorders. In L. E. Copstead & J. Banasik (Eds.), Pathophysiology (5th, pp. 1039-1042). St. Louis, Missouri: Elsevier Saunders.

Marieb, E., & Hoehn, K. (2013). Joints. In S. Beuparlant (Ed.), Human Anatomy & Physiology (9th, pp. 249-270). Glenview, IL: Pearson Education, Inc.

Marshall, B. (2015, June 9). No Bones About it, Nutrition is Vital for Bone Health [Webinar]. Retrieved from www.PRLabs.com

Murray, M. (2013). Osteoarthritis. In J. Pizzorno & M. Murray (Eds.), Textbook of Natural Medicine (4th, pp. 1651-1661). St. Louis, Missouri: Elsevier, Churchill Livingstone.

Paesold, G., Nerlich, A. G., & Boos, N. (2007). Biological treatment strategies for disc degeneration: potentials and shortcomings. European Spine Journal, 447-468. doi:10.1007/s00586-006-0220-y

Peluso, R., Caso, F., Costa, L., Sorbo, D., Carraturo, N., Di Minno, M. N., . . . Scarpa, R. (2016). Mud-bath therapy and oral glucosamine sulfate in patients with knee osteoarthritis: a randomized, controlled, crossover study. Clinical and Experimental Rheumatology. Abstract retrieved from PMID: 27050908

Shea, M., Kritchevsky, S., Hsu, F. C., Nevitt, M., Booth, S., Kwoh, C. K., . . . Loeser, R. F. (2015). The association between vitamin K status and knee osteoarthritis features in older adults: The Health, Aging and Body Composition Study [Abstract]. Osteoarthritis Cartilage, 370-378. doi:10.1016/j.joca.2014.12.008

Wang, Q., Yang, Y. Y., Niu, H. J., Zhang, W. J., Feng, Q. J., & Chen, W. F. (2013). An ultrasound study of altered hydration behaviour of proteoglycan-degraded articular cartilage. BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders. doi:10.1186/1471-2474-14-289

Yavorskyy, A., Hernandez-Santana, A., McCarthy, G., & McMahon, G. (2008). Detection of calcium phosphate crystals in the joint fluid of patients with osteoarthritis – analytical approaches and challenges. Analyst, 302-318. doi:10.1039/b716791a

 

 

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Cardio Protective Nutrition for a Healthy Heart

Written by Lauren Hayden. Posted in Athletic Performance, Detoxification, Energy Support, Mineral Support

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“Prevent cardiovascular disease,  understand the causes,  empower yourself to take action”

Atherosclerosis is the leading cause of cardiovascular disease and mortality in the industrialized world.  Current theories on the etiology of CVD formation include the endotoxin theory of damage to the tunica, the inflammation and oxidation of cholesterol theory and the hydroxyapatite theory of calcium formation.   This literature review explores six leading phytonutrients and minerals, Bear garlic (Allium ursinum), Garlic (Allium Sativum), Turmeric (Curcuma longa), Delta Tocotrienol, and Vitamin D3 and Coral Calcium, shown effective against the causes of atherosclerosis.  Along with a healthy diet, exercise and stress management we found that phytonutrients from plants and minerals are effective in the prevention and treatment of atherosclerosis.

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Disease Prevention Strategies for 2016

Written by Lauren Hayden. Posted in Detoxification, Detoxification and Cleansing Support, Energy Support, Mineral Support, Nutritional Support

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  • As we contemplate our wellness resolutions this New Year, consider integrating a detoxification, nutritional supplementation and stress management component to your wellness program.   Mark your calendar and join us for an open house to learn simple strategies to make 2016 your year to learn the latest  disease prevention techniques and the importance of  detoxification.

    Sunday, February 28, 2016
    3-5 pm
    Seminar Cost $40.00
    (applied toward consultation)

    Live Well LLC
    5721 Windsor Gate Lane
    Fairfax, VA 22030
    703-929-6855

    Detoxify

    Acute or chronic toxicity from environmental chemicals, infectious agents (bacteria, viruses and parasites) and electromagnetic radiation stress or injure our cell (Banasik, 2013). Toxicity can cause disease and is the number one challenge facing our health today (Sears, 2013).  Chronic toxicity can alter cellular function and the microenvironment of the cell (Casey, Amedei, Aguilano et al 2015)   leading to diseases  including, cardiovascular, endocrine disorders (thyroid, hormonal imbalances) neurodegenerative disorders (Alzheimer’s, Multiple Sclerosis, Parkinson’s) and many cancers including breast, prostate (Sears, 2013) and blood cancers including leukemia.

    Internal detoxification is the elimination of internal stressors including bacteria, viruses, parasites, and environmental toxins from pesticides and heavy metals which suppress the immune system and interfere with cellular communication and or function (Copstead & Banasik, 2013). Many phytonutrients and minerals have been targeted as inhibitory agents capable of influencing tumorigenesis and stimulating apoptosis of cancer cells cell (Casey, Amedei, Aguilano et al 2015).  Many FDA approved, herbal botanicals (phytonutrients) support internal detoxification including:

    • Allicidin effectively eliminates candida and other bacteria
    • Medi-clay FX and Gamma Detox  promote intracellular and extracellular detoxification
    • Cardio ND is a blood cleanser shown to safely and effectively support healthy blood pressure and cardiovascular health
    • Immuno ND detoxifies the lymph improving immune function
    • Oregano Oil, Olive Leaf and Premier HCL detoxify viruses supporting immune function of white blood cells

    Nutrify

    A healthy diet is essential, difficult to maintain and typically not enough to prevent and reverse disease.  Nutritional deficiencies and infection may provide stimulus for disease and cancer cell proliferation (Banasik, 2013). Provide your cells with the phytonutrient (plant based nutrients) through supplementation and dietary support to keep your cells and organs working at optimal function.

    Focus your programs on:

    • Correcting nutritional deficiencies
    • Supporting the immune system
    • Balancing the pH of the bodily fluids through dietary and mineral support
    • Improving the digestion and absorption of micro and macronutrients

    De-Stress

    Exercise has been clinically shown to be essential to our health and well-being due to increased cellular metabolism and stress reduction. Benefits of exercise include:

    • Increases oxygen and cellular detoxification
    • Increased ventilation and circulation
    • Stress relief through release of catecholamines and stress hormones  (Seaward, 2015)
    • Physical stimulation prevents homeostatic dysfunction
    • Increases physical fitness and quality of life
    • Reduces fatigue
    • Improve energy and stamina
    • Promotes weight loss through activation of fat and carbohydrate metabolism.

    “Empowering you to achieve radiant health and well-being”

     

 

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